Different Types of Natural Stone: Kota, Sandstone & Quartzite

May 10, 2022

Stone is the most well-known and widely used materials in the construction industry. The uses and types of stone are available in a diverse range. Stone is very much functionally used in the building and interior. Whereas, there are two main categories of Stone that are Natural and Engineered Stone. Both these stones have their durability and function.‌‌

Natural stone is durable and used as a building material. It is composed of minerals and the main ingredient is silica. Stones are composed of diorite, quartzite, marble, travertine, granite, and the like. ‌‌

There are different types of Natural stone:






and many more.‌‌

Also, the natural stone is used for flooring, interior, and exterior decor, countertop. Each of the above-mentioned natural stones has its important characteristics.‌‌

Benefits of using Natural Stone Flooring:

There are many practical reasons for using natural stone:

Every application of Natural stone is aesthetic and entirely unique from one another.

It has great durability and strength.

These are eco-friendly, natural, non-polluting.‌‌

1. Natural Kota:‌‌

Kota is one of the excellent flooring materials known all over India, it is a natural fine-grained limestone. Used for a variety of things and is widely known as cheaper than marble and granite.‌‌

Natural Kota stone has a greenish-blue color. Available in other colors like black, pink, chocolate brown. Marble and granite are very well known, but Kota possesses its own advantage. Also, especially used for exteriors, but used wisely can be a great interior. ‌‌

Natural Kota stone is widely used for flooring and wall cladding. Kota is stronger and possesses a long shine.‌‌

Kota stone is named as Rajasthan Kotah and Tandoor Cota stone. These two Kota have their own functionality, but the Rajasthan Kota is considered as of better quality. Kota has also gained popularity with its widely available colors and physical properties.‌‌

Kota Surface

Properties of Natural Kota:

  • Kota is fine-grained limestone, of sedimentary nature.
  • It has physical properties like hardness, non-porous, and homogeneity.
  • It is also non-slippery and water-resistant.
  • Kota is very durable, great under heavy use too.
  • Possess the ability to take mirror polish and will not show surface dust easily.
  • Great acquisition in earthy constructions and long-lasting.
  • Kota stone is available in a rough dress and polished finish.
  • Easily available at an affordable price and most durable.
  • Kota stone is heavy, delivers a strong base.‌‌

Types of Kota:

1. Green Kota - The name itself suggests the color of the Kota as green. Green Kota is available in both rough and polished.‌‌

2. Brown Kota - The efficiency of brown Kota is low, and it is not available that much, making its price higher. Available in colors shade of yellow, green, and brown‌‌

3. Rough Kota - Available in both surfaces of both natural and rough and also all the size and thickness. ‌‌

4. Blue Kota - It comes in various forms like polished, tumbled, and natural. gives a soothing look, used for both interior and exterior. ‌‌

Applications of Natural Kota:‌‌

Kota stone enhances both the interior and exterior look of the building. Available in various forms like slabs and tiles, size and thickness to set in any pattern.‌‌

  • It is the ideal flooring material for residential, commercial buildings and also porch-like outside the building.
  • Can be used in Exteriors, Pathways, Corridors, Driveways, Balconies, and more.
  • Strong base for kitchen countertops
  • Used for chemical industries as it contains resistant properties.
  • With its hard and durable nature preferred in high footfall spaces.
  • Polished stone is a great use for the interior of the building and delivers a luxurious look.
  • Widely used on flooring, kitchen, bathroom, and wall cladding.
  • Also popularly used in the staircase, garden patio, corridor, pavement, driveway, and more. ‌‌

2. Sandstone

Sandstone is the official state rock of Nevada. Sandstone rock takes more than thousands of years to form. Whereas with high heat and pressure, sandstones turn to the metamorphic rocks quartzite or gneiss.

Sandstone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of sand-sized 0.0625 ( 1/16 millimetre) to 2 mm and silicate grains. The sandstone mostly includes quartz or feldspar, both these materials are mostly resistant minerals.

It is available in any color due to the presence of impurities within the minerals. The common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, grey, pink, white, and black. The sandstone deposits can be found in many places all across the World that too in different varieties.  ‌‌


Properties of Sandstone are:

  • Sandstone usually consists of quartz framework grains
  • Sandstone has great hardness and chemical stability
  • It has to cement material that binds the sand grains together
  • It is gritty to touch and is relatively soft can be easy to carve
  • Sandstone is also resistant to weathering and easy to work on
  • It has the properties like hardness, uniformity of grain size, and friability of their structure‌‌

Types of Sandstone:

Classification of sandstone is the character of the grains. The two characteristics that are observable are hardness and color. Based on this there are four main types of sandstone:

1. Gray Sandstone - These are the mixture of dark and light grains that gives the grey color. Gray sandstone is not usually as hard. Gray sandstone has an edge core that is relatively weak.‌‌

2. Crystallized Sandstone - This sandstone is white and sugary, it can be very hard and brittle. ‌‌

3. Hard Sandstone - The characteristics of hard sandstone ranges between gray sandstones and crystallized sandstones like light to dark grey in color. Whereas it is hard and brittle like crystallized sandstones. ‌‌

4. Carbonate Cemented Sandstone‌‌ - These are almost gray sandstones where the grains are held together with either calcium or iron carbonate cement. ‌

Another property to differentiate the sandstone is bedding. Bedding is the property that is visible on the side of the core. Major five types of bedding are:

  1. Massive
  2. Cross bedded
  3. Streaked with shale
  4. Rooted
  5. Burrowed‌‌

Sandstone consists of thin streaks of bedding or bands of shale. The inclined streaks to the side of the core represents the rock is cross bedded.‌‌

Sandstone Surface

Uses of Sandstone:

  • Sandstone is used from domestic construction to commercial construction
  • Sandstone is a popular building material used from ancient times. It has been in use for temples, homes, and other buildings construction
  • As it is easy to carve, used for artistic purposes like ornamental fountains and statues
  • Used as a common building and paving material
  • It can be a great excellent material to make the grindstones, for sharpening blades and other implements
  • Sandstone is porous and served as a filter for running water‌‌

Sandstone is a widely used material in building structures, the few properties of sandstone like resistance to weathering make it vital for external constructions. As a landscaping and building stone, sandstone is full of character and is quite durable. ‌‌

3. Quartzite‌‌

Quartzite is a metamorphic rock, the sandstone is converted into a solid quartz rock. When sandstone is subjected to high heat and pressure, the quartz grains recrystallize to form the metamorphic rock called quartzite. The quartzites are free from pores and have a smooth fracture. Quartzites are snowy white with often pink or grey has fine angular jointing and breaks up into rubble.

So, the original texture and sedimentary structures are kind of erased on sandstone by the metamorphism.

Quartzite signifies a high degree of hardening and a high content of quartz. Most quartzites contain 90 percent or more quartz and the quality containing 99 percent is the largest and purest concentration of silica. These pure quartzites are a source of silica.

Quartzite has numerous uses like it is quarried for paving blocks, riprap, road metal (crushed stone), railroad ballast, and roofing granules.‌‌

Characteristics and Properties of Rock:

Quartzite is a tough stone and is 7 on the Mohs hardness scale.

It is harder than glass and harder than a knife blade.

Quartz is resistant to acid and will not engrave at all from normal kitchen acids.

The porosity of Quartzite is more porous and will benefit from sealing.

Many choose the beauty and color of quartzite

Overall the material is strong, beautiful, very durable and scratch-resistant‌‌

Types of Quartzite are:

1. Grainy Quartzite - As we know that quartzite is the future formation of sandstone. The sandstone layers get pressed deeper in the Earth holding more tightly. The original patterns and textures from the sandstone precursor are still visible. Examples: Mykonos, Vento Cinza, and White Macaubus.‌‌

2. Crystalline Quartzite - With high heat, the sandstone is wiped out and the stone becomes dense and crystalline. Crystalline quartzites are less porous than grainy quartzites. Taj Mahal includes crystalline quartzite. ‌‌

3. Mixed Stone Quartzite - Once the limit of heat on the quartzite gets crossed over 3000 degrees F. These rocks are called ‘migmatite,’ meaning ‘mixed rock,’ because it’s part igneous, and part metamorphic. It is beautiful, very strong, and has low porosity‌‌‌‌.

Quartzite Surface

Applications and Uses of Quartzite:‌‌

  1. Interior design: Used widely for the Kitchen Countertops. It has great durability and elegance, easy to maintain. Also available in attractive looks, textures, and colors
  2. Exterior design: Facade Cladding. Quartzite is s a good choice for exterior cladding and provides the advantage of both functioning and aesthetic
  3. Used in landscape, pool, and garden design. Great to use because of its rough texture and hardness. Its resistance to withstand foot traffic, use as great garden pathways paving patios or balconies
  4. Most common uses are floor, vanities, countertops, fireplace surrounds, cladding of walls, roofing tiles, flooring, and stairsteps
  5. Quartzite is great for the bricks and other strong building materials.
  6. It is a decorative stone and is used on the surface rather than underground. Quartzite can be used as railroad track ballast because is so hard and durable
  7. The use of quartzite is versatile used both indoors and outdoors
  8. It is used in various shapes and forms including landscaping, building stone, as a feature wall, tiles, or even stone cladding‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌

Natural stone, most luxurious material widely used for architecture, interior and exterior design. Nature has offered us a great gift, the creation of natural stone takes years. They have diverse range of uses and types. Arkihive brings to you the different varieties of natural stones and many other construction materials.



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